【2021-06-06】罪担脱落,感觉美好


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上帝啊!我虽然罪孽深重,但我愿意承认自己的过犯,恳求你按你的信实和公义赦免我,洗净我的不义!奉主名求,阿们!


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利未记16:1~34

赎罪祭的条例

1 亚伦的两个儿子走近耶和华面前而死亡以后,耶和华对摩西说:2 “你要告诉你的哥哥亚伦,不可随时进入圣所的幔子里面,到约柜上的施恩座,免得他死亡,因为我在施恩座上的彩云中显现。3 亚伦进入圣所时要带一头公牛犊作赎罪祭,一只公绵羊作燔祭。4 他要穿上细麻布的圣内袍,也要把细麻布的裤子穿在身上,腰束细麻布的带子,头戴细麻布礼冠;这些就是圣衣。他要先用水洗身,然后才穿上圣衣。5 他要从以色列的会众中,取两只公山羊作赎罪祭,一只公绵羊作燔祭。

The Lord spoke to Moses after the death of the two sons of Aaron who died when they approached the Lord. The Lord said to Moses: “Tell your brother Aaron that he is not to come whenever he chooses into the Most Holy Place behind the curtain in front of the atonement cover on the ark, or else he will die. For I will appear in the cloud over the atonement cover. This is how Aaron is to enter the Most Holy Place: He must first bring a young bull for a sin offering and a ram for a burnt offering. He is to put on the sacred linen tunic, with linen undergarments next to his body; he is to tie the linen sash around him and put on the linen turban. These are sacred garments; so he must bathe himself with water before he puts them on. From the Israelite community he is to take two male goats for a sin offering and a ram for a burnt offering.

6 亚伦为自己的罪献上作赎罪祭的公牛,为自己和家人赎罪,7 然后把两只公山羊牵来,放在会幕门口,耶和华的面前;8 亚伦要为这两只山羊抽签:一签归耶和华,另一签归阿撒泻勒(“阿撒泻勒”是希伯来文音译,这字原意不能确定)。9 亚伦要把那抽签归耶和华的山羊,献作赎罪祭。10 至于那抽签归阿撒泻勒的山羊,却要活活地摆在耶和华面前,用来赎罪,然后叫人把它送到旷野,归阿撒泻勒。11 “亚伦要先为自己献上作赎罪祭的公牛,为自己和家人赎罪,他要把那为自己作赎罪祭的公牛宰杀。12 从耶和华面前的祭坛上,拿一个盛满火炭的香炉,又拿一捧捣细的芬芳香料,带进幔子里,13 在耶和华面前把香放在火上,使香的烟云遮掩约柜上的施恩座,免得他死亡。

Aaron is to offer the bull for his own sin offering to make atonement for himself and his household. Then he is to take the two goats and present them before the Lord at the entrance to the tent of meeting. He is to cast lots for the two goats—one lot for the Lord and the other for the scapegoat. Aaron shall bring the goat whose lot falls to the Lord and sacrifice it for a sin offering. But the goat chosen by lot as the scapegoat shall be presented alive before the Lord to be used for making atonement by sending it into the wilderness as a scapegoat. “Aaron shall bring the bull for his own sin offering to make atonement for himself and his household, and he is to slaughter the bull for his own sin offering. He is to take a censer full of burning coals from the altar before the Lord and two handfuls of finely ground fragrant incense and take them behind the curtain. He is to put the incense on the fire before the Lord, and the smoke of the incense will conceal the atonement cover above the tablets of the covenant law, so that he will not die.

14 他要取些公牛的血,用指头弹在施恩座的东面,再用指头在施恩座的前面,弹血七次。

He is to take some of the bull’s blood and with his finger sprinkle it on the front of the atonement cover; then he shall sprinkle some of it with his finger seven times before the atonement cover.

15 “然后他要宰杀那为人民作赎罪祭的公山羊,把血带进幔子里,弹羊血在施恩座的上面和施恩座的前面,好像弹公牛的血一样。16 他要为圣所赎罪,使圣所脱离以色列人的不洁和他们的过犯,就是他们的一切罪孽。然后他又要为会幕同样的赎罪。因为会幕和他们在一起,在他们的不洁中间。17 他进入至圣所赎罪的时候,会幕里不可有人;直到他为自己和家人,以及以色列全体会众,赎了罪出来为止。

“He shall then slaughter the goat for the sin offering for the people and take its blood behind the curtain and do with it as he did with the bull’s blood: He shall sprinkle it on the atonement cover and in front of it. In this way he will make atonement for the Most Holy Place because of the uncleanness and rebellion of the Israelites, whatever their sins have been. He is to do the same for the tent of meeting, which is among them in the midst of their uncleanness. No one is to be in the tent of meeting from the time Aaron goes in to make atonement in the Most Holy Place until he comes out, having made atonement for himself, his household and the whole community of Israel.

18 他出来,就到耶和华面前的祭坛那里,为坛赎罪。他要取一点公牛的血和山羊的血,抹祭坛的四角。

Then he shall come out to the altar that is before the Lord and make atonement for it. He shall take some of the bull’s blood and some of the goat’s blood and put it on all the horns of the altar.

19 又用指头向祭坛弹血七次,洁净祭坛,使它分别为圣,脱离以色列人的不洁。

He shall sprinkle some of the blood on it with his finger seven times to cleanse it and to consecrate it from the uncleanness of the Israelites.

代罪的山羊

20 “亚伦为圣所、会幕和祭坛赎了罪以后,就要把那只活山羊献上。21 亚伦两手按在那只活山羊头上,承认以色列人的一切罪孽和他们的过犯,就是他们一切罪孽。把它们都归在那山羊的头上;然后经由已预定的人,把羊送到旷野里去。22 那只山羊就担当他们的一切罪孽,把它们带到一个完全隔离的地;所以那人要把那只山羊送到旷野里去。23 “亚伦要进会幕,把他进圣所时所穿的细麻布衣服脱下,放在那里。24 然后在圣洁的地方用水洗身,穿回自己的衣服出来,把自己的燔祭和众民的燔祭献上,为自己和众民赎罪。25 赎罪祭牲的脂肪,他要焚烧在祭坛上。26 那送走归阿撒泻勒的山羊的人,要洗净自己的衣服,用水洗身,然后才可以进到营里。27 那作赎罪祭的公牛和作赎罪祭的公山羊,它们的血既然被带进去为圣所赎罪,它们的身体就要搬出营外去;它们的皮、肉和粪都要用火烧掉。28 那烧祭牲的人要洗净自己的衣服,用水洗身,然后才可以进营。

“When Aaron has finished making atonement for the Most Holy Place, the tent of meeting and the altar, he shall bring forward the live goat. He is to lay both hands on the head of the live goat and confess over it all the wickedness and rebellion of the Israelites—all their sins—and put them on the goat’s head. He shall send the goat away into the wilderness in the care of someone appointed for the task. The goat will carry on itself all their sins to a remote place; and the man shall release it in the wilderness. “Then Aaron is to go into the tent of meeting and take off the linen garments he put on before he entered the Most Holy Place, and he is to leave them there. He shall bathe himself with water in the sanctuary area and put on his regular garments. Then he shall come out and sacrifice the burnt offering for himself and the burnt offering for the people, to make atonement for himself and for the people. He shall also burn the fat of the sin offering on the altar. The man who releases the goat as a scapegoat must wash his clothes and bathe himself with water; afterward he may come into the camp. The bull and the goat for the sin offerings, whose blood was brought into the Most Holy Place to make atonement, must be taken outside the camp; their hides, flesh and intestines are to be burned up. The man who burns them must wash his clothes and bathe himself with water; afterward he may come into the camp.

每年当守一次赎罪日

29 “每逢七月十日,你们要刻苦己心,无论是本地人,或是寄居在你们中间的外人,什么的工,你们都不可作,这要作你们永远的律例。

“This is to be a lasting ordinance for you: On the tenth day of the seventh month you must deny yourselves and not do any work—whether native-born or a foreigner residing among you—

30 因为在这一天,他要为你们赎罪,使你们洁净,脱离你们一切罪孽,使你们在耶和华面前成为洁净。

because on this day atonement will be made for you, to cleanse you. Then, before the Lord, you will be clean from all your sins.

31 这是完全休歇的安息,你们要刻苦己心。这是永远的律例。

It is a day of sabbath rest, and you must deny yourselves; it is a lasting ordinance.

32 那被膏立,承受圣职,接替他父亲作祭司的,要穿上细麻布衣服,就是圣洁的衣服,进行赎罪。

The priest who is anointed and ordained to succeed his father as high priest is to make atonement. He is to put on the sacred linen garments

33 他要为至圣所赎罪,又为会幕和祭坛赎罪,以及为祭司们和全体会众赎罪。

and make atonement for the Most Holy Place, for the tent of meeting and the altar, and for the priests and all the members of the community.

34 每年一次,要因以色列人一切的罪,为他们赎罪。这是你们永远的律例。”于是亚伦照着耶和华吩咐摩西的去行。

This is to be a lasting ordinance for you: Atonement is to be made once a year for all the sins of the Israelites.” And it was done, as the Lord commanded Moses.


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► 这段经文的要点是什么?

► 这段经文对于天父、主耶稣、圣灵有何启示?

► 这段经文怎样帮助你明白你自己、你的处境或你的人际关系?

► 这段经文有没有一个应许、命令、警告或案例是特别为你而说的呢?


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以色列人每年有七个重大节日,赎罪日是其中之一。按犹太历法,每年的七月初一日(即公历九、十月之间,参23:23~32)是以色列人的新年,也就是“吹角节”;而七月初十日则是赎罪日。这样的安排十分有意思,因为百姓可以在一年之始,靠着上帝的恩典,把过去的罪恶重担除掉,重新轻松上路。

在记述本章有关赎罪日的礼仪时,利未记作者是以“活物教学”的手法,以突出的“视觉效果”,为以色列百姓上了宝贵的一课。首先,在赎罪日,大祭司亚伦要把华美的礼服脱下,换上白色的麻布衣服(4),并要先为自己和利未族人献赎罪祭(9)。随后,全民的赎罪礼开始,而赎罪礼的祭物是两只公山羊(7)。亚伦要在会幕门口为两只羊抽签,从而决定哪一只要被宰杀,哪一只要放生(8~10)。

虽然今天我们无法确定“阿撒泻勒”(8,10,26)的意思,但有一点很清楚的,就是那只“归阿撒泻勒”的羊要被带到旷野,“为人民赎罪”(10,20~22,现代中文译本修订版)。大祭司要按手在羊的头上,为全国人民所犯的罪大声认罪祷告,恳求上帝的饶恕。大祭司的举动,代表百姓所承认的罪要归到羊的身上,由羊担当(英文“Scapegoat”或中文“代罪羔羊”一词正是由此而来)。祭司祷告过后,那只羊就在百姓面前活着被带往旷野。以色列民既亲耳听见大祭司作的认罪祷告,又亲眼看着这代罪羔羊背负众人的罪,被牵往旷野,越走越远,逐渐消失踪影,仿佛百姓的罪也被带往很遥远的地方,不再被看见,不再被记念。

在赎罪日,全民都要禁食,刻苦己心,并停止一切工作,参加当日的圣礼,使心灵得到洗涤,经历上帝赦罪的恩典,把下垂的手、发酸的腿再次挺起来。(参来12:12)


在旧约时代,以色列民有代罪羔羊为他们赎罪,到了新约,父上帝差派他的独生子成就了救赎。为此,让我们今天同心献上感恩的祷告:“亲爱的主,感谢你,因你甘心献上生命作赎罪祭,以你的血遮盖我的罪。主啊,你曾应许,我若认自己的罪,你是信实的、是公义的,必要赦免我的罪,洗净我一切的不义。因此,我恳求你怜悯我,并把我的罪孽踏在脚下,又将我的一切罪污投入深海。阿们!”


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【明日经文】利未记17:1~9

-The End-

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