【2021-06-04】灾后重建


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主啊,感谢你一直保守我、看顾我、建立我。求你叫我在任何景况下都紧紧倚靠你,奉主名求,阿们!


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利未记14:1~57

痲风病人洁净之条例

1 耶和华对摩西说:2 “患痲风病的人得洁净的日子,应守的律例如下:人要带他去见祭司。3 祭司要出到营外去察看,祭司若是看见患病的人身上的痲风病已经好了,4 就要吩咐人为那求洁净的人,拿两只洁净的活鸟、香柏木、朱红色线和牛膝草来。5 祭司要吩咐人用瓦器盛活水,把一只鸟宰杀在上面。6 至于那只活鸟,祭司要把它与香柏木、朱红色线和牛膝草一起拿来,把这些物品和活鸟一同蘸于那在活水上宰杀的鸟血中,7 然后向那患痲风病求洁净的人身上弹七次,就可以宣布他洁净;又让那只活鸟飞到田野去。8 那得洁净的人要洗自己的衣服,剃去身上所有的毛发,用水洗澡,就洁净了;然后他可以进营,只是还要在自己的帐幕外住七天。9 第七天,他要把身上一切的毛发都剃去;头发、胡须、眉毛和身上一切的毛发都剃去;又要洗衣服,用水洗身,就洁净了。

The Lord said to Moses, “These are the regulations for any diseased person at the time of their ceremonial cleansing, when they are brought to the priest: The priest is to go outside the camp and examine them. If they have been healed of their defiling skin disease, the priest shall order that two live clean birds and some cedar wood, scarlet yarn and hyssop be brought for the person to be cleansed. Then the priest shall order that one of the birds be killed over fresh water in a clay pot. He is then to take the live bird and dip it, together with the cedar wood, the scarlet yarn and the hyssop, into the blood of the bird that was killed over the fresh water. Seven times he shall sprinkle the one to be cleansed of the defiling disease, and then pronounce them clean. After that, he is to release the live bird in the open fields. The person to be cleansed must wash their clothes, shave off all their hair and bathe with water; then they will be ceremonially clean. After this they may come into the camp, but they must stay outside their tent for seven days. On the seventh day they must shave off all their hair; they must shave their head, their beard, their eyebrows and the rest of their hair. They must wash their clothes and bathe themselves with water, and they will be clean.

10 “第八天,他要取两只没有残疾的公羊羔和一只没有残疾一岁的母羊羔,又要把调油的细面三公斤作素祭,以及三分之一公升油一同取来。11 行洁净礼的祭司领那求洁净的人拿着这些祭物站在会幕门口,耶和华的面前。12 祭司取一只公羊羔,献作赎愆祭,取三分之一公升油一同献上;祭司把这两样当作摇祭,在耶和华面前摇一摇。13 他要在圣洁的地方,就是宰杀赎罪祭牲和燔祭牲的地方,宰杀那只公羊羔,因为赎愆祭牲,像赎罪祭牲一样,是至圣的,要归祭司;14 祭司要取些赎愆祭牲的血,抹在得洁净的人的右耳垂上和右手的大拇指上,以及右脚的大拇趾上。15 祭司又从那三分之一公升油中,取出一点来,倒在自己的左掌里;16 把右手的一个指头,蘸在左掌的油里,在耶和华面前用指头把油弹七次。17 然后祭司要把手中剩下的油,抹在那得洁净的人的右耳垂上和右手的大拇指上,以及右脚的大拇趾上,就是抹在赎愆祭牲的血上。

“On the eighth day they must bring two male lambs and one ewe lamb a year old, each without defect, along with three-tenths of an ephah of the finest flour mixed with olive oil for a grain offering, and one log of oil. The priest who pronounces them clean shall present both the one to be cleansed and their offerings before the Lord at the entrance to the tent of meeting. Then the priest is to take one of the male lambs and offer it as a guilt offering, along with the log of oil; he shall wave them before the Lord as a wave offering. He is to slaughter the lamb in the sanctuary area where the sin offering and the burnt offering are slaughtered. Like the sin offering, the guilt offering belongs to the priest; it is most holy. The priest is to take some of the blood of the guilt offering and put it on the lobe of the right ear of the one to be cleansed, on the thumb of their right hand and on the big toe of their right foot. The priest shall then take some of the log of oil, pour it in the palm of his own left hand, dip his right forefinger into the oil in his palm, and with his finger sprinkle some of it before the Lord seven times. The priest is to put some of the oil remaining in his palm on the lobe of the right ear of the one to be cleansed, on the thumb of their right hand and on the big toe of their right foot, on top of the blood of the guilt offering.

18 祭司要把手中剩下的油,抹在那得洁净的人的头上;祭司在耶和华面前为他赎罪。19 祭司要献赎罪祭,为那得洁净的人赎罪,使他脱离污秽,然后宰杀燔祭牲。20 祭司要把燔祭和素祭献在祭坛上,为他赎罪,他就洁净了。

The rest of the oil in his palm the priest shall put on the head of the one to be cleansed and make atonement for them before the Lord. Then the priest is to sacrifice the sin offering and make atonement for the one to be cleansed from their uncleanness. After that, the priest shall slaughter the burnt offering and offer it on the altar, together with the grain offering, and make atonement for them, and they will be clean.

21 “但如果他贫穷,经济能力不足,他只要拿一只公绵羊羔作赎愆祭,摇一摇为他赎罪;要把调油的细面一公斤作素祭,和三分之一公升的油一同拿来;22 又要按他的经济能力,拿两只斑鸠或是两只雏鸽,一只作赎罪祭,一只作燔祭。23 第八天,他为了自己得洁净,要把这些祭物带到会幕门口,耶和华面前,交给祭司。24 祭司要取那只作赎愆祭的公羊羔和那三分之一公升油;祭司把这些,在耶和华面前摇一摇当作摇祭;25 然后宰杀作赎愆祭的公羊羔,取些赎愆祭牲的血,抹在那得洁净的人的右耳垂上和右手的大拇指上,以及右脚的大拇趾上。

“If, however, they are poor and cannot afford these, they must take one male lamb as a guilt offering to be waved to make atonement for them, together with a tenth of an ephah of the finest flour mixed with olive oil for a grain offering, a log of oil, and two doves or two young pigeons, such as they can afford, one for a sin offering and the other for a burnt offering. On the eighth day they must bring them for their cleansing to the priest at the entrance to the tent of meeting, before the Lord. The priest is to take the lamb for the guilt offering, together with the log of oil, and wave them before the Lord as a wave offering. He shall slaughter the lamb for the guilt offering and take some of its blood and put it on the lobe of the right ear of the one to be cleansed, on the thumb of their right hand and on the big toe of their right foot.

26 祭司要把一些油倒在自己的左掌里;27 用右手的一个指头把左掌中的油,在耶和华面前弹七次。28 祭司又要把手中的油,抹在那得洁净的人的右耳垂上和右手的大拇指上,以及右脚的大拇趾上,就是抹了赎愆祭牲的血的地方。29 祭司把手中剩下的油,抹在那得洁净的人的头上,在耶和华面前为他赎罪。30 那人就要按着自己的经济能力献上一只斑鸠,或是一只雏鸽。31 他要按着自己的经济能力,献上一只作赎罪祭,一只作燔祭,连同素祭一同献上。祭司要在耶和华面前,为求洁净的人赎罪。32 这是关于患了痲风病,但经济能力不足够预备正常洁净礼祭物的人,应守的律例。”

The priest is to pour some of the oil into the palm of his own left hand, and with his right forefinger sprinkle some of the oil from his palm seven times before the Lord. Some of the oil in his palm he is to put on the same places he put the blood of the guilt offering—on the lobe of the right ear of the one to be cleansed, on the thumb of their right hand and on the big toe of their right foot. The rest of the oil in his palm the priest shall put on the head of the one to be cleansed, to make atonement for them before the Lord. Then he shall sacrifice the doves or the young pigeons, such as the person can afford, one as a sin offering and the other as a burnt offering, together with the grain offering. In this way the priest will make atonement before the Lord on behalf of the one to be cleansed.” These are the regulations for anyone who has a defiling skin disease and who cannot afford the regular offerings for their cleansing.

有关患痲风病人房屋之条例

33 耶和华对摩西和亚伦说:34 “你们进了我赐给你们作产业的迦南地的时候,我给你们作产业之地的房屋,如果发霉,35 房主就要去告诉祭司:‘据我看来,房屋中似乎染了病症。’36 祭司进去察看病症之前,要先吩咐人把房屋搬空,免得房屋里的一切都成了不洁;然后祭司才进去,察看那房屋。37 他要察看那病症,如果发现在房屋的墙上有发绿或是发红的腐蚀斑纹,而且有深透入墙的现象;38 祭司就要从房屋里出来,到房门外去,把房屋隔离七天。39 第七天,祭司要回来察看,如果发现病症在房屋的墙上蔓延,40 祭司就要吩咐人把染有病症的石头挖出来,扔在城外不洁净的地方,41 要刮净房屋里面的四周,把刮下来的灰泥倒在城外不洁净的地方;42 拿别的石头放进去代替挖出来的石头,然后用别的灰泥粉刷房屋。

The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “When you enter the land of Canaan, which I am giving you as your possession, and I put a spreading mold in a house in that land, the owner of the house must go and tell the priest, ‘I have seen something that looks like a defiling mold in my house.’ The priest is to order the house to be emptied before he goes in to examine the mold, so that nothing in the house will be pronounced unclean. After this the priest is to go in and inspect the house. He is to examine the mold on the walls, and if it has greenish or reddish depressions that appear to be deeper than the surface of the wall, the priest shall go out the doorway of the house and close it up for seven days. On the seventh day the priest shall return to inspect the house. If the mold has spread on the walls, he is to order that the contaminated stones be torn out and thrown into an unclean place outside the town. He must have all the inside walls of the house scraped and the material that is scraped off dumped into an unclean place outside the town. Then they are to take other stones to replace these and take new clay and plaster the house.

43 “如果挖出石头,刮了房屋,粉刷了墙以后,病症再次在房屋里出现,44 祭司就要进去察看;如果发现病症在房屋里有蔓延的现象,这就是房屋里顽恶的发霉现象,那房屋就不洁净了。45 要把房屋拆毁,把房屋里的石头、木头,以及所有的灰泥都搬到城外不洁净的地方去。46 在房屋被关闭的期间,进去的人必不洁净到晚上。47 在房屋里睡觉的人,要洗净自己的衣服;在房屋里吃饭的人,也要洗净自己的衣服。

“If the defiling mold reappears in the house after the stones have been torn out and the house scraped and plastered, the priest is to go and examine it and, if the mold has spread in the house, it is a persistent defiling mold; the house is unclean. It must be torn down—its stones, timbers and all the plaster—and taken out of the town to an unclean place. “Anyone who goes into the house while it is closed up will be unclean till evening. Anyone who sleeps or eats in the house must wash their clothes.

48 “房屋粉刷以后,祭司进去察看,如果看见病症在房屋里没有蔓延,祭司就要宣布那房屋为洁净,因为已经复原了。49 为了洁净那房屋,祭司要拿两只鸟、香柏木、朱红色线和牛膝草;50 把一只鸟,在盛着活水的瓦器上宰杀;51 然后拿香柏木、牛膝草、朱红色线和那只活鸟,都一同蘸在被宰杀的鸟血和活水中,向房屋弹七次。52 他就用鸟血、活水、活鸟、香柏木、牛膝草和朱红色线,洁净了那房屋;53 然后让那只活鸟飞到城外的田野里去;他为房屋赎罪,房屋就洁净了。”

“But if the priest comes to examine it and the mold has not spread after the house has been plastered, he shall pronounce the house clean, because the defiling mold is gone. To purify the house he is to take two birds and some cedar wood, scarlet yarn and hyssop. He shall kill one of the birds over fresh water in a clay pot. Then he is to take the cedar wood, the hyssop, the scarlet yarn and the live bird, dip them into the blood of the dead bird and the fresh water, and sprinkle the house seven times. He shall purify the house with the bird’s blood, the fresh water, the live bird, the cedar wood, the hyssop and the scarlet yarn. Then he is to release the live bird in the open fields outside the town. In this way he will make atonement for the house, and it will be clean.”

54 以上是有关各种痲风病、癣疥、55 衣服和房屋发霉、56 肿瘤、疮癣和火斑的律例;57 指示人知道什么时候不洁净,什么时候洁净。这是痲风病的律例。

These are the regulations for any defiling skin disease, for a sore, for defiling molds in fabric or in a house, and for a swelling, a rash or a shiny spot, to determine when something is clean or unclean. These are the regulations for defiling skin diseases and defiling molds.


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► 这段经文的要点是什么?

► 这段经文对于天父、主耶稣、圣灵有何启示?

► 这段经文怎样帮助你明白你自己、你的处境或你的人际关系?

► 这段经文有没有一个应许、命令、警告或案例是特别为你而说的呢?


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若发生大地震,灾情惨重,会死伤无数。地震之后,当局既要开始重建楼房的工程,又要为劫后余生的灾民进行身体、心理、精神的治疗,刻不容缓。诚然,人在面对灾难之后,极需得到快速且适切的重建和帮助。在利未记14章,读者便看到麻风病患者在病后如何得到祭司的帮助,重返家庭和社会。

读者不应该小看本章所记载的献祭和洁净程序,因为其中有非常重要的心理辅导和公众教育效果。可以说,麻风病患者的洁净礼有死而复活、重获新生的象征意义。这礼仪的具体过程如下:祭司要先检查患者,确认患者的灾病已痊愈,然后替他举行公开的洁净礼仪。患者的家人和社群中的人都会来参加洁净礼,从而表示支持并接纳患者重返群体之中。患者要预备两只活鸟交给祭司,由祭司吩咐人把其中一只宰了,再把它的血滴在盛着活水(例如从河流或水泉取来的水)的盆里;至于另一只活鸟,则要跟香柏树的枝子、牛膝草并朱红色的小绳捆在一起,再蘸上盆里的血水。其后,血水要洒在求洁净的人身上七次,而活鸟则要被解开,带往田野放生。

这一切程序完成后,患者仍不能马上回家,而要在自己的帐棚外先居住七天,再把全身的毛发剃光,沐浴更衣(1~9)。几天后,患者要分别献上赎愆祭和摇祭(12~13),以及赎罪祭、燔祭和素祭(19~20)。此外,祭司要在患者的右耳垂、右手大拇指和右脚大拇指上,抹上血和油,象征他的罪得了洁净;祭司又要把剩下的油抹在患者的头上,从而表示患者过去的愁苦要变为喜乐(参诗45:7;赛61:3)。至此,洁净礼便完成了。

除了论及麻风病患者的洁净礼外,在33~57节,利未记作者也记载了有关房子发霉的律例。百姓要清除所有霉烂的部分,重新墁上石灰,再由祭司主持洁净礼仪,房子才可以居住。


其实,麻风病患者染上恶疾,并不只是他个人的事,更对他的家人以至整个社群有影响。患病如此,犯罪也是如此。让我们谨记,一人犯罪作恶,必连累许多人;一人不负责任,必祸及无辜。就如一个嗜赌如命的父亲必累及家人,叫家人受苦一样。求主帮助我们时刻警醒,远离罪恶的试探引诱,以免累人累己。


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【明日经文】利未记15:1~33

-The End-