【2021-06-01】你吃得健康吗?


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上帝啊!你就是良善,你才是善恶的标准。求你帮助我专一仰望你,跟从你,奉主名求,阿们!


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利未记11:1~47

洁净与不洁净之动物(申14:3-21)

1 耶和华对摩西和亚伦说:

The Lord said to Moses and Aaron,

2 “你们要告诉以色列人:地上所有的走兽中,你们可以吃的动物,就是这些:

Say to the Israelites: ‘Of all the animals that live on land, these are the ones you may eat:

3 分蹄有趾而且反刍的走兽,你们都可以吃。

You may eat any animal that has a divided hoof and that chews the cud.

4 但你们不可吃下列反刍,或分蹄的走兽动物:骆驼,因为它反刍却不分蹄,你们应以为不洁净。

There are some that only chew the cud or only have a divided hoof, but you must not eat them. The camel, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is ceremonially unclean for you.

5 石獾(本章动物名字多不能确定。“石獾”传统翻译作“沙番”或“山鼠”),因为它反刍却不分蹄,你们应以为不洁净。

The hyrax, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is unclean for you.

6 兔子,因为它反刍却不分蹄,你们应以为不洁净。

The rabbit, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is unclean for you.

7 猪,因为它分蹄有趾却不反刍,你们应以为不洁净。

And the pig, though it has a divided hoof, does not chew the cud; it is unclean for you.

8 这些走兽的肉你们不可吃,它们的尸体你们不可摸,你们应视为不洁净。

You must not eat their meat or touch their carcasses; they are unclean for you.

9 “水中所有的活物你们可以吃的,就是这些:凡是在水中,有翅有鳞的,不论是在海里或是河里的,你们都可以吃。

‘Of all the creatures living in the water of the seas and the streams you may eat any that have fins and scales.

10 在水中游动或生存在水中的活物,无论是在海里或是河里,若是没有翅和鳞的,你们都要当作可憎之物。

But all creatures in the seas or streams that do not have fins and scales—whether among all the swarming things or among all the other living creatures in the water—you are to regard as unclean.

11 它们是你们憎恶之物;它们的肉,你们不可吃;它们的尸体,你们要憎恶。

And since you are to regard them as unclean, you must not eat their meat; you must regard their carcasses as unclean.

12 所有在水里没有翅和鳞的活物,你们都要当作可憎之物。

Anything living in the water that does not have fins and scales is to be regarded as unclean by you.

13 “在鸟类中,你们要憎恶,也不可吃这些雀鸟:兀鹰(雀鸟的名字中文翻译还未统一,它们的学名多不能确定)、雕、鹫、14 鸢、猎鹰等隼类,15 所有乌鸦类,16 鸵鸟、猫头鹰、海鸥、苍鹭等鹰类。17 鸱鹗、鸬鹚、大鸱枭、18 白鹭、塘鹅、鸨、19 鹳、红鹤等鹭鸶类,戴胜和蝙蝠。

These are the birds you are to regard as unclean and not eat because they are unclean: the eagle, the vulture, the black vulture, the red kite, any kind of black kite, any kind of raven, the horned owl, the screech owl, the gull, any kind of hawk, the little owl, the cormorant, the great owl, the white owl, the desert owl, the osprey, the stork, any kind of heron, the hoopoe and the bat.

20 “凡有翅膀、四足爬行的生物,你们都要当作可憎之物。

‘All flying insects that walk on all fours are to be regarded as unclean by you.

21 但在所有有翅膀、四足爬行的生物中,如果有足有腿,能在地上蹦跳的,你们都可以吃。

There are, however, some flying insects that walk on all fours that you may eat: those that have jointed legs for hopping on the ground.

22 在昆虫中,你们可以吃这些:蝗虫类、蚂蚱类、蟋蟀类和蚱蜢类。

Of these you may eat any kind of locust, katydid, cricket or grasshopper.

23 但是其他所有有翅膀四足的生物,你们都要当作可憎之物。

But all other flying insects that have four legs you are to regard as unclean.

24 “以下事物,会使你们成为不洁:触摸动物尸体的,就不洁净到晚上。

‘You will make yourselves unclean by these; whoever touches their carcasses will be unclean till evening.

25 拾起它们的尸体的,就要洗净自己的衣服,并且不洁净到晚上。

Whoever picks up one of their carcasses must wash their clothes, and they will be unclean till evening.

26 所有分蹄却无趾的、不反刍的走兽,你们应以为不洁净,触摸它们的,就不洁净。

Every animal that does not have a divided hoof or that does not chew the cud is unclean for you; whoever touches the carcass of any of them will be unclean.

27 所有用四足行走的动物中,用脚掌行走的,你们应以为不洁净,触摸它们尸体的,都不洁净到晚上。

Of all the animals that walk on all fours, those that walk on their paws are unclean for you; whoever touches their carcasses will be unclean till evening.

28 拾起它们尸体的,就要洗净自己的衣服,并且不洁净到晚上。以上这些你们应以为不洁净。

Anyone who picks up their carcasses must wash their clothes, and they will be unclean till evening. These animals are unclean for you.

29 “在地上爬行的生物中,你们应以为不洁净的是这些:鼬鼠、鼫鼠、蜥蜴这一类,30 以及壁虎、龙子、守宫、蛇医、变色龙。

‘Of the animals that move along the ground, these are unclean for you: the weasel, the rat, any kind of great lizard, the gecko, the monitor lizard, the wall lizard, the skink and the chameleon.

31 在所有爬行的生物中,你们应以这些为不洁净;它们死了以后,触摸它们的,都不洁净到晚上。

Of all those that move along the ground, these are unclean for you. Whoever touches them when they are dead will be unclean till evening.

32 它们当中死了的,掉在什么东西上,无论是木器或是衣服,皮子或是布袋等任何器具,都成为不洁净,要放在水中。但仍不洁净到晚上,以后就真洁净了。

When one of them dies and falls on something, that article, whatever its use, will be unclean, whether it is made of wood, cloth, hide or sackcloth. Put it in water; it will be unclean till evening, and then it will be clean.

33 它们当中死了的,掉在什么瓦器里,其中不论是什么,都成为不洁净,你们要把瓦器打碎。

If one of them falls into a clay pot, everything in it will be unclean, and you must break the pot.

34 瓦器的水若是滴在任何食物上,食物就成了不洁净,若是滴在装了饮料的器皿里,饮料也成为不洁净。

Any food you are allowed to eat that has come into contact with water from any such pot is unclean, and any liquid that is drunk from such a pot is unclean.

35 它们尸体的任何部分掉在什么东西上,那东西就不洁净,无论是炉或是锅,都成为不洁净,应该打碎;你们应以这些为不洁净。

Anything that one of their carcasses falls on becomes unclean; an oven or cooking pot must be broken up. They are unclean, and you are to regard them as unclean.

36 但是水源和储水池仍算是洁净的。只有触摸水中尸体的,才是不洁净。

A spring, however, or a cistern for collecting water remains clean, but anyone who touches one of these carcasses is unclean.

37 它们尸体的一部分掉在要播种的种子上,种子还是洁净的;

If a carcass falls on any seeds that are to be planted, they remain clean.

38 但是,如果种子已经浇了水,它们尸体的一部分才掉在种子上面,你们应以这种子为不洁净。

But if water has been put on the seed and a carcass falls on it, it is unclean for you.

39 “一只你们可以吃的走兽死了,谁摸了它的尸体,就不洁净到晚上;

‘If an animal that you are allowed to eat dies, anyone who touches its carcass will be unclean till evening.

40 谁吃了它的尸体,就要洗净自己的衣服,并且不洁净到晚上;谁拾起这尸体,也要洗净自己的衣服,并且不洁净到晚上。

Anyone who eats some of its carcass must wash their clothes, and they will be unclean till evening. Anyone who picks up the carcass must wash their clothes, and they will be unclean till evening.

41 “所有在地上爬行的动物,都是可憎之物,都不可吃。

‘Every creature that moves along the ground is to be regarded as unclean; it is not to be eaten.

42 凡是用肚子,或用四足或是多足在地上爬行的动物,你们都不可吃,因为它们是可憎之物。

You are not to eat any creature that moves along the ground, whether it moves on its belly or walks on all fours or on many feet; it is unclean.

43 你们不可因任何爬行的动物使自己成为可憎的,也不可因它们玷污自己,以致不洁净。

Do not defile yourselves by any of these creatures. Do not make yourselves unclean by means of them or be made unclean by them.

44 因为我是耶和华你们的上帝,所以你们要使自己成为圣洁。你们要分别为圣,因为我是圣洁的。你们不可因在地上爬行的任何动物玷污自己,

I am the Lord your God; consecrate yourselves and be holy, because I am holy. Do not make yourselves unclean by any creature that moves along the ground.

45 因为我是耶和华,曾把你们从埃及地领上来,为要作你们的上帝;你们要分别为圣,因为我是圣洁的。”

I am the Lord, who brought you up out of Egypt to be your God; therefore be holy, because I am holy.

46 以上就是有关走兽、飞禽、所有在水中游行的动物,和所有在地上爬行的动物的律例,

These are the regulations concerning animals, birds, every living thing that moves about in the water and every creature that moves along the ground.

47 为要把不洁净的和洁净的,可吃的生物和不可吃的生物,分别出来。

You must distinguish between the unclean and the clean, between living creatures that may be eaten and those that may not be eaten.’”


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► 这段经文的要点是什么?

► 这段经文对于天父、主耶稣、圣灵有何启示?

► 这段经文怎样帮助你明白你自己、你的处境或你的人际关系?

► 这段经文有没有一个应许、命令、警告或案例是特别为你而说的呢?


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昔日,亚当和夏娃吃了分别善恶树上的果子,结果被上帝逐出了伊甸园(参创2:16~17;3:11,17,23~24)。人有分别善恶的能力为何不好呢?原来,问题的关键在于分别善恶的“标准”并非是人设定的!事实上,不同的人有不同的标准,若标准是由人设定的话,人只会以自己的主见为“最高权威”,甚至将自己看作“上帝”,最终产生“各人偏行己路”(参赛53:6)的结果。我们要知道,善恶的标准完全是由上帝设定的,我们对创造万有的上帝,理当绝对顺服。再者,创造万有的上帝是爱我们的,祂完全是为我们的好处而设定一切律法条例的。基于这个大前提,我们可以对利未记第11章有全新的体验和理解。

概括而言,本章经文主要指出,在上帝的设定中,动物“洁净”与否的标准如下:①凡地上走兽,要分蹄和倒嚼(反刍),才算洁净(3~8);②凡水中的动物,有翅有鳞才算洁净(9~12);③不洁的鸟类,一般都是吃腐肉或其他动物尸体的(13~19);④会跳的昆虫才是洁净的(20~23);⑤所有爬行类动物都是不洁净的(29,30)。

其实,食物与人的健康有莫大的关系。上帝设定上述标准,为要使人知道如何分辨洁净和不洁净,而借着“选择”食物的过程,人也可以操练分别善恶的功课。以色列人是上帝的选民,他们在生活习惯和价值观方面与其他民族不同。事实上,上帝明确指出:“因为我是耶和华你们的上帝,所以你们要使自己成为圣洁。你们要分别为圣,因为我是圣洁的。你们不可因在地上爬行的任何动物玷污自己,因为我是耶和华,曾把你们从埃及地领上来,为要作你们的上帝;你们要分别为圣,因为我是圣洁的。”(44~45)由此推之,上帝的选民在生活和饮食习惯上与世人不同,不是要标新立异,而是要操练敬虔,学习分别是非善恶。


感谢上帝,从现在的卫生常识角度来看,我们知道圣经中划为不洁净的食物,的确对人的健康有害无益。诚如保罗所说:“什么事情都可以做,但不是都有益处。”(林前10:23)因此,损坏身体健康的食物就不应该吃。近年来,世界卫生组织积极关注和监督世人的健康,并特别提防流行性及传染性的疾病。我们既然接受世界卫生组织的劝告,不更应该重视和珍惜上帝善意的提醒吗?


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→ 我们有没有具体的行动,能在生活中实践上帝的话语?

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【明日经文】利未记12:1~8

-The End-